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Sap2000 spring stiffness


Sap2000 spring stiffness

1 NSD Description and Operation . plaxis. Recall (§B. T = 0. Figure 32 . Similarly, if f H is the force in the horizontal spring, and f i is the force in the i-th uniaxial element, the resisting force vector of the wall element relative to the six degrees of freedom is obtained from equilibrium as []a 01–0 0 10 SAP2000 Getting Started defined meshes, a fully-coupled 6-by-6 spring stiffness, and the option to combine or envelope multiple dynamic analyses in the same run. friction In certain seismic designs you may require the friction spring to have a higher force when the spring is unloaded to help to push the building structure back to its vertical position.


Blake INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the theory of free and forced steady-state vibration of single degree-of-freedom systems. connection between the mass and the structure is usually an elastic spring with a specific stiffness and damping (Sladek and Klingner, 1983). Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint - Beautifully designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects. Design & Modeling of LRB’s Isolators can be modeled explicitly in analysis software such as ETABS, SAP2000 and LARSA. When modeling various types of structural systems, one of the goals of the analysis could be to come up with an effective value of stiffness and interpret its scope based on how we compute it from the structural problem at hand. These 2 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF NEGATIVE STIFFNESS DEVICE .


The local stiffness matrix for a spring is that of a truss however with entries equal to the spring stiffness k Determination of Stiffness for Wind Tower Foundation by Operational Modal Analysis Cláudio José Martins*, Ludmila Moura Moreira Mendes Department of Civil Engineering, CEFET-MG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Abstract This paper aims to report a simple and fast procedure to determine translational, rotational and torsional stiffness CSi Việt Nam - Sap2000, Etabs, Safe, CSiBridge. equation of this system can be rewritten as a spring-mass-damper system, shown in Fig. 10. R. F(t) is the nx1 vector of generalized forces. SAP2000 OBJECTS POINT OBJECTS: The Spring Element: Joint to ground (support) spring with gap element• Automatic spring calculation from foundation surface • Global and skewed springs • Coupled 6x6 user defined spring stiffness option (for foundation modeling) • Fully-coupled 6x6 linear spring and 8 SAP2000 Tutorial Manual Figure 1-3 Static Deformed Shape Figure 1-4 Lateral Deformed Shape Structural Performance You will often want to make certain that the structure is within the performance limits, such as stresse ratio, set by the code being used.


The stiffness (K s) is lateral stiffness of staging. Application Problem State (DOF) vector d represents Forcing vector f represents Structures and solid mechanics Displacement Mechanical force Heat conduction Temperature Heat flux SAP2000 V16. 9 rad /sec@2 (10) Z 1 30. S. Chapter 4 – Structural Modeling and Analysis 4-2 b) Beam Element A beam element is a slender member subject to lateral loads and moments. Different k s value is to be selected for different frames and for different positions.


0 Example: Transparency 1-29 Identically the same Cantilever Beam Tutorial (Solid Model) © Dassault Systèmes, 2011 SIMULIA Learning Community spring Friction interface Pile stiffness Rayleigh damping ISOLATED BRIDGE SDOF NUMERICAL MODEL SAP2000 « Plastic (Wen) » link/support type for all supports Mass proportional Rayleigh numerical damping ξ = 5% Questions about SAP2000 every support is a spring with multiple degrees of freedom. T=2*pi*sqrt(m/k) give nearby results in SAP for a 3D bridge model? Length change in SAP2000. The case for semi-rigid connection will now be investigated through the use of structural analysis program SAP2000. B. D) Effective modal mass. A pre-compression displacement and a displacement stop-limit may be specified.


the footing stiffness is increasing due to soil types parameters from soft, medium, and hard soils with higher stiffness values, that reflect directly on the overall stiffness of whole structure A Friction Isolator link is defined in Define > Section Properties > Link/Support Properties (You can find more details on Friction Isolatorlinks in SAP2000 Analysis Reference Manual). Use local equations to compute the spring forces. Today, we will expand on that and show you how to model this in 2D and 3D. Author(s) Dipanjan Basu, Rodrigo Salgado, and Monica Prezzi 8. Node three displaces 0. 3-4.


considered a concentrated mass on a damped spring element. The high vertical stiffness is achieved by having thin layers of rubber reinforced by steel shims. The mass, spring stiffness, and the damping of the TMD are designed in such a way so that when a force is applied, the structure and substructure begin to sway, the The finite element program SAP2000 V12 has been used to carry out the parametric analysis. This value is similar to the effective yield strength for steel materials. 2 Gap Spring Assembly Description and Operation . 0).


The second one is the In SAP2000 software, water tank is modeled by providing substructure method that can consider the frequency-dependent spring of calculated stiffness in different directions at the base, or independent dynamic stiffness and the damping of the directly through joint spring and also restrain in the horizontal soil/foundation Figure 7 and Figure 8 present the capacity spectrum curves of Al-Fahs Bridge (study case); in the longitudinal and transversal direction respectively. This has nothing to do with modal analysis as static analysis also needs a stiffness matrix and mass matrix, and the modal stiffness matrix and mass matrix is exactly the considered when strength, stiffness and rotational capacity of the base plate loaded by bending moment have to be predicted, see [1]. is the element stiffness matrix relative to the three pure deformation degrees of freedom shown in Fig. 1. The refined design method was employed using two, four, and six stiffness segments at which stiffness is evaluated along the height of the pier walls. e.


J. The best thing is to ask Geotech Engineer for the allowable loads and the allowable axial displacement on working loads. The stiffness modifiers are used to take into account the cracking of RCC sections. e BS EN 10210-2: 1997"Hot finished Rectangular Hollow Sections" & BS EN 10219-2:"Cold Formed Circular Hollow Sections" The Torsion Constant J and the Torsion modulus constant C are listed. Select the Coordinate System within which the springs are being assigned. IJ.


The equations given here are for homogenous, linearly elastic materials, and where the rotations of a beam are small. Comparison Between SAP2000 and ETABS 90 Stiffness Derivation for NLLINK Elements for Semi-Rigid Truss Model 91 Conversion Factors for Strength 101 CSI Values Calculation 104 Truss Design Drawings from the TPM 109 The TPM's Models (Analogs) for Individual Trusses with Semi-Rigid Joints 125 SAP2000 Input and Output Files 141 SAP2000® Ba sic Anal y si s Ref er enc e Manu al Lin ear and Non lin ear Static and Dy namic Anal y sis and De sig n of Three- Di men sion al Struc tures ISO# SAP062608M2 Ver sion 12. Nonlinear spring-bed modelling for earthquake analysis of multi-storey buildings on shallow foundations 2014 NZSEE Conference L. Soil Sub-Grade Modulus Subgrade-Subbase Strength Soil bearing capacity, soil compressibility, and soil modulus of subgrade reaction are various measures of strength-deformation properties of soil. with each structural element of the building frame is a stiffness matrix, and all these matnces together can be assembled into a global stiffness matnx to represent the structure. Wharf model behavior was primarily governed by values used for springs used to characterize pile-soil and wharf to cut-off wall interaction.


Select values for the spring stiffness and the dashpot coefficient. A bilinear Maxwell damper has been implemented as a new link property. The force-displacement relationship exhibits linear slipping stiffness when loading, but unloads with a smaller slipping stiffness. Your plate load test can’t reach to that sort of soil depth. Different values for these spring elements Please understand the CGAP element is NOT a spring element, is a contact element, at the beginning of the analysis the CGAP element don't have any stiffness, the NX Nastran solver has to perform contact iterations to know the state of every CGAP element of the FE model to see if it is working in tension or compression, ie, to know if the CGAP A frequency response function (FRF) is a transfer function, expressed in the frequency-domain. In introductory mechanics of materials the axial stiffness of a bar is defined as k = E A / L, where the bar has a length of L, an area A, and is constructed of a material elastic modulus of E.


1. The specimen modeled is the three-dimensional corner of the first floor of a nine-story building. Stiffness (Solid Bar) • Stiffness in tension and compression –Applied Forces F, length L, cross-sectional area, A, and material property, E (Young’s modulus) AE FL F k L AE k Stiffness for components in tension-compression E is constant for a given material E (steel) = 30 x 106 psi E (Al) = 10 x 106 psi E (concrete) = 3. 11 3 BASIC FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS OF NEGATIVE FOUNDATIONS FOR DYNAMIC EQUIPMENT 351. Soil-foundation-structure interaction in shallow foundation spring-bed modelling 5 In both models the horizontal stiffness of the foundation was assigned to a single elastic horizontal spring shown in Figure 2. From the Main Menu select File > Import > AutoCAD DXF File.


Again we have had some changes, namely in the editing staff. The torsion constant is a geometrical property of a bar's cross-section which is involved in the relationship between angle of twist and applied torque along the axis of the bar, for a homogeneous linear-elastic bar. clayey soil conditions, particularly in Indian seismic zones. Supports & Restraints SAP2000 • Generalized joint constraint options including rigid bodies. Using the bearing layout shown at the bottom of the Choice of Bearings web page: The oriented spring pair has been found to give a more accurate VERIFICATION WITH SAP2000 FRAME MODEL 76 STIFFNESS MATRIX 111 midas Civil Dynamic Analysis Step 2: Eigen Value Analysis Results A) Natural modes (or mode shapes) B) Natural periods (or frequencies) C) Modal participation factors. The corresponding displacement is designated by d.


The spring stiffness should be large enough so the fundamental periods of the system are not changed, and small enough not to cause numerical problems. T=2*pi*sqrt(m/k) give nearby results in SAP for a 3D bridge model? Csi America 'nın 22 mayıs haberine göre Sap2000 v16. Fire and igh h temperatures – Friction springs are made of special spring-steel They are. cladding. www. 1 MODELING SAP2000, a nonlinear software package was used for modeling and analysing the study bridge.


2. 1 An Elastic Spring We consider a linear spring, a one-degree of freedom system, as shown in Fig. (1) in a form where and are, respectively, the member-end displacements and forces matching in direction with r and R. charts for foundation stiffness at surface and for embedment. The SAP2000 PLUS program adds unlimited capacity, bridge live-load analysis capabilities, a complete range of finite elements, and time-history analysis options. Analytical expressions for force and stiffness can be used to define a spring in any direction.


The torsional stiffness Boundary Conditions. Estos resortes pueden ser lineales o nolineales, prueba usando el tipo "gap" ya que sólo trabaja a compresión. Pender University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. The soil spring stiffness can be given as (Gazeteas 1991; Mylonakis et al. SAP2000 will do the stress checks automatically when a member is designed. 2.


El sap2000 ofrece las alternativas de modelar resortes, tipo link (que une 2 puntos del modelo) y support (para modelar interacción con el suelo, ambos tienen las mismas propiedades. supported on over 2000 zero-length rigid spring elements at the bottom of the foundation. g, Modulus of elasticity, Modulus of rigidity, Shear strength, shear strain and ductility in torsion. INTRODUCTION The rapid development of urban population and the pressure on limited space significantly influence the residential development of the city. CBFs tend to be efficient in resisting lateral SFSI in shallow foundation earthquake response 2013 NZSEE Conference L. • SAP2000 can create animated deflected shapes (*.


Sufficiently rigid stiffness values may be assigned using spring constants, property modifiers, section properties, or any other method which will produce the desired effect. 7 2. The lateral secant stiffness of the plumb pile embedded into a soil mass, Klat, can be obtained by imposing Import : Import MCT files as well as other types of files. a low-stiffness rotational spring used in OpenSees model and the SAP2000 model are shown in Figure 4. Buckling refers to the loss of stability of a component and is usually independent of material strength. Plots of a single component of the moment often form a loop or hysteresis curve, where there are different values of one variable The deflection of a spring beam depends on its length, its cross-sectional shape, the material, where the deflecting force is applied, and how the beam is supported.


Therefore, the reported value for center of rigidity for semi-rigid diaphragm has no meaning and this reported CR does not affect the analysis results. 0 ~-I-----+-----time R 200. This has also been the case with the Plaxis Bulletin. AVI files) for the time-history results fromprogram SASSI. Although, the notion of point of fixity is a useful device for treating piles as columns, it should be recognized that the so-called point of fixity of a pile does, in fact, vary. This paper describes design models for the resistance and stiffness of concrete in compression as proposed by an ad-hoc working group of ECCS TC10 and COST C1.


Model Views. SAP2000 follows in the same tradition featuring a very sophisticated, intuitive and versatile user interface powered by an unmatched analysis engine and design tools for engineers working on transportation, industrial, public works, sports, and other facilities. In addition to the direct method of modelling, for evaluating the seismic response of reinforced concrete multi-story buildings with raft foundation on soft soil, the underneath soil is modeled by Winkler spring approach with equivalent static stiffness based on soil modulus of elasticity [3] [27] . SAP2000 includes parametric templates for the following types of structures: Simple Beams, 3D Trusses, 3D Frames, Storage Vessels, Staircases, Dam Structures, and Pipes. A friction-spring hysteretic damper has been implemented as a new link property. Chapter 8.


11. In HyperMesh, boundary conditions are stored within what are called load collectors. The car weighs 3000lb. Contributions containing formulations or results related to applications are also encouraged. 78 Hz (12) Z2 > 6098 rad Modeling Piles/Piers in FEM Software When we use finite element software for analyzing deep foundations then it becomes important to model piles with accurate axial stiffness so that the load can distribute properly based on pile stiffnesses. In my little test model I created a a column fixed at the base, and from the top of the column, I drew a 2 pt linear (spring) link with a length of 1 foot vertically above the column.


, 2000). 10 Stiffness Formulation for SAP2000 offers true nonlinear cable elements with catenary behavior and large displacement analysis. The finite element method began as a matrix method of k BT EB T udV and k is known as the element stiffness matrix. 05440. Figure 1 Damper element in SAP2000 software Since viscous damper system will be modeled as pure stiffness-free damping behavior (stomatal viscous damper), stiffness of damper element will be considered zero in order to reach the pure damping in linear analyses. 11 of ACI 318 for stiffness modifier values suggest by ACI.


Previously, you saw how to compute stiffness of linear elastic structures in 0D and 1D. software SAP2000 was used to carry out the analysis of the structural response of the suspension Figure 29 Required Spring Stiffness Varying with Spacing between Determine the displacement at node 2 and the force acting at node 3 of the spring system. , 16 August 1997. In bodies of elastic material the three stiffness moduli (E', K' and G') are related to each other and to Poisson’s ratio (n'). The stiffness is derived from the spring per unit length of the cross section. The closest the moment to the fixed end was when the beam stiffness at junctions was given as 10EI/L.


To model impact between the two colliding buildings, the linear spring-damper (Kelvin-Voigt model) element is mostly used, where KL is the stiffness and CL is the damping coefficient (Anagnostopoulos [1], Shakya and Wijeyewickrema [19]). 0 at = 1. Thirty-one linear and nonlinear link elements were used to simulate the cladding connections. 219775 sec f = 4. Ground motion effects with SAP2000 follows in thesame tradition featuring a very sophisticated, intuitive andversatile user interface powered by an unmatched analysis engineand design tools for engineers working on transportation,industrial, public works, sports, and other facilities. An analysis of the composite pile–soil system was performed using the finite difference (FD) software LPILE.


f1x 2x f Note: Assumed sign conventions The Stiffness (Displacement) Method 2. Dr. The spring. The damping force is supposed as directly related to the velocity, with the damping constant c. , translational DOF) are defined. Increasing the number of springs shouldn’t increase the forces since the spring values with multilinear elastic stiffness ku2 and ku3.


Nonlinear support conditions can be modeled to include gaps (compression only), multi-linear elastic or plastic springs, viscous dampers, and base isolators. The dynamic analysis is carryout on RC frame irregular structure using time history analysis by the fem software sap2000. 1 An Elastic Spring Fig. Spring Direction and Coordinate System drop-down list. Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters Short Course on Computational Geotechnics + Dynamics Boulder, Colorado January 5-8, 2004 Stein Sture Professor of Civil Engineering University of Colorado at Boulder The underneath soil is modeled by Winkler spring approach with equivalent static stiffness based on soil modulus of elasticity of range from 24,480, 12,240 and 6,120 t/m 2 for stiff, medium and soft soil (ASTM 1985). Both Excel spreadsheets were used to generate SAP2000 model.


17 BEAMS SUBJECTED TO TORSION AND BENDING -I 1. When line or area springs are assigned to an object, SAP2000 generates equivalent joint springs at each node created during auto-meshing. Kerr Model A shear layer is introduced in the Winkler foundation and the spring constants above and below this layer is assumed to be different as per this formulation. In general, the Poisson effect is incorporated in the physical A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION INCLUDING SHEAR AND AXIAL EFFECTS ZIMMOS P. Eq (1) is solved with appropriate initial conditions, at t=0, Uo,Vo=dU/dt Viscoelastic (VE) dampers can be efficiently used for improving the seismic behavior of structures and also retrofitting of existing structures. 0 SAP2000 v16.


The results showed that inelastic behavior of these connections Underclassmen are strongly encouraged to come to all the fall sessions where the Captains lead design discussions and tutorials of software such as SAP2000. This device is a linear spring in series with a dashpot whose force-velocity relationship exhibits bilinear viscous behavior, typical of certain oil dampers having a relief valve. 0 is a major new release, and significant new features have been added or enhanced levels of stiffness and the stiffness factor is one and a half times as large as that determined using K = 4EI/L . New Features for SAP2000 Version 16. 1-مقام الصبا وشرح لأسهل طريقة لحفظ اي مقام بسهولةجدا "Maqam Saba "(إبداع المقامات) - Duration: 10:52. The buckling loads of Laterally loaded elastic piles on elasto-plastic foundation Using SAP2000 v17 OAPI soil stiffness in each element books and Many more Civil Engineering The analysis described in this paper was performed using SAP2000 Non-linear version 7.


Auto lateral wind… PARAMETER ESTIMATION USING SENSOR FUSION AND MODEL UPDATING by KEVIN FRANCOFORTE B. Bracing, which provides stability and resists lateral loads, may be from diagonal steel members or, from a concrete 'core'. Young's Modulus as a Spring Constant. The secondary mass system is designed to have the natural frequency, which is depended on its mass and stiffness, tuned to that of the primary structure. displacement curve for a linear elastic structure. , due to support settlement).


We have the following relationship k · d 5 Flexibility and Stiffness Concepts Fig. reliable results can be obtained. Taking into account the physical Notes on the Nodal and Relative Lateral Stability. You can refer Code Section 10. Elastic modulus is a property of the constituent material; stiffness is a property of a structure. The stiffness of semi-rigid joints should be taken into consideration in the structural model.


S E N LI T UOALN_ I F _ R E VOC _ s e g d i r B f o n g i s e D c smi i e S lmf C M Y K Shear stiffness: two integration points necessary because is linear Element bending stiffness matrix of an element with length l e and one integration point Element shear stiffness matrix of an element with length l e and two integration points Stiffness Matrix of the Timoshenko Beam -1- 5 Flexibility and Stiffness Concepts Fig. Maffei Rutherford & Chekene Consulting Engineers, San Francisco, California, USA ABSTRACT: Shake-table tests of a full-scale seven-story wall structure at the University of California at San Let’s take the case PARTIAL FIXITY in ETABS. It enters soil elastic bedding coefficient C and soil shear parameter 2CT which are calculated by first soil surface parameter on related places of SAP2000 program. However the Moments at the fixed end at that point reduce as compared to no spring specified. rods and welds Joint Constraints Weld Rod Diaphragm . Performing Organization Report No.


Also quick question on the modal analysis, on one of the modes my substructure is acting like a spring. PARSONS$ Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, U. 3. The elastic bar is often modeled as a linear spring. The following list provides details about the element type used for modeling the components of the bridge structure in SAP2000. I recommend you ask Geotech engineer to do a 2D soil analysis (Wallap Plaxis) to give you the modulus.


Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over 1000 impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience. Multiple degree-of-freedom systems are discussed, including the normal-mode theory of linear elastic structures and For the roadway described in the preceding section, the amplitude of vibration may not exceed 35cm at any speed. It should be noted that Reference [1] uses only the first five mode shapes of the beam for its computation. The spring force is supposed as directly related to the spring´s deformation (compression or extension), with the spring factor k, which is the spring´s stiffness. k s is the stiffness of the pre-compressed spring. 0.


3) that Hooke's Law defines a spring constant as the applied force divided by the spring displacement, or . Economy comes from the inexpensive, nominally pinned connections between beams and columns. At the base of footing springs are provided to simulate the flexibility of soil. g. Form: Assign Springs Along Frame Object Line springs can be assigned in any of the local axes directions of a frame object. SAP2000 v18 Due to its effectiveness and 3D object based modelling features, SAP2000 is used in more than 160 countries worldwide.


The physical significance of the vectors u and f varies according to the application being modeled. 2006; Kalkan and Chopra 2010): The change in length of a spring is proportional to the magnitude of the force causing it to stretch (so long as the force is not too large!)– this relationship is known as Hooke’s law and can be expressed as an equation kFδ= where the spring stiffness k depends on the material the spring is made from, and the shape of the spring. It was showed that modal analyses present a simple, fast and accurate procedure to determine the real foundation stiffness. Storie & M. •Key Features of SAP2000 •General Spring Connection •Global and skewed springs •Coupled 6x6 user-defined spring stiffness option (for foundation The SAP2000 follows in the same tradition featuring a very sophisticated, intuitive and versatile user interface powered by an unmatched analysis engine and design tools for engineers working on transportation, industrial, public works, sports, and other facilities. Ralph E.


To study the shear stress ~ shear strain behavior of the material. 05m and 0. The use of a Winkler spring model acting in conjunction with the foundation to eliminate the rotational spring may also be used, as shown in Figure CA7. However, it does not provide the modifier values to be used. It is important to consider how these parameters apply to the design of floor slabs. GESCHWINDNER and ANDRES LEPAGE ABSTRACT The requirements for stability bracing of columns and beams have been included in AISC specifications since 1999.


In the past few years, several guidelines on the analysis and design procedure of passive energy dissipation devices have been developed in the U. Based on the results, comparing with 3 models it conclude that the soil structure interaction Will the method to find horizontal stiffness of an isloator for an SDOF system ie. The analysis was performed with the variation of the mass and effective stiffness of the damper, which indicates that effective stiffness of damper is important parameter and mass of damper is not significant. where M,C,K are nxn SYMMETRIC matrices of inertia, viscous damping and stiffness coefficients, and U, dU/dt, d2U/dt2,and are the nx1 vectors of displacements, velocity and accelerations. IS 456:2000 does talk about stiffness of members in Clause 22. The modified stiffness matrix method has been proposed and adopted to determine the displacement and internal forces of piled structure.


1 mu +cu +[k0u +φ(u )] =f(t) (1) where f (t) is the external force which may be induced by the earthquake, wind and rotating machine, c is the coefficient for the linear viscous damping coefficient, φ(u)is the stiffness Chapter 2 - Definition of the stiffness matrix; applications for a simple spring element; and potential energy approach to derive spring element equations. Hetenyi foundation [30]. At 55 miles per hour, the amplitude of vibration must be less than 10cm. 3 for the yield displacement, q = 0. These two characteristics allow the isolator to move laterally with relatively low stiffness yet carry significant axial load due to their high vertical stiffness. 4.


Non-Linear Analysis/SAP 2000 1 Non-Linear Static Analysis using SAP 2000 Mitesh Surana Research Scholar, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee For Queries please mail to: [email protected] Step-1 Linear Analysis & Unlock the Model Design the building as per linear analysis using expected strength and modified partial safety factors. I should have included more info in my last reply. Calculating the rotational stiffness of each connection to determine what is American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) 2013 Recent Advances in Structural Engineering, RASE2013 Page 61 square infill to d/11 for an infill having a side’s ratio of 5 to 1, where‘d’ is the length of the masonry infill. It is observed that modulus of soil has considerable effect on natural period of system and e positive moment is down 2 SAP2000 convention for internal moment and shear from SE 130B at University of California, San Diego per the values provided by the spring manufacturer. Then, it starts SAP2000 program analysis and gets displacement results di of nodes of soil finite elements. Florida Institute of Technology, 2003 A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements A STUDY ON DESIGN OF PILED RAFT FOUNDATION SYSTEMS submitted by NURULLAH SÖNMEZ in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Civil Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University by, Prof.


I will put the pictures once I am at my office. It is numerically equal to the total load of the same distribution which would cause a unit deflection at the point where the deflection is equal to that of the equivalent system. 025m, respectively. In general, it has six degrees of freedom at each node including translations and rotations. linear stiffness is equal in all directions). Select Element Type-Consider the linear spring shown below.


Pender Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland. org - thư viện trực tuyến, download tài liệu, tải tài liệu, sách, sách số, ebook, audio book, sách nói hàng đầu Việt Nam If a single spring system is taken into account, a direct relationship between load and displacement is enforced, consequently: P Ku (1) Where P is the applied load, K is the stiffness spring coefficient (load induced by a unitary displacement) and u is the progressively applied displacement. The load at which buckling occurs depends on the stiffness of a component, not upon the strength of its materials. Computer modeling and effective stiffness of concrete wall buildings M. Time dependent effects such as creep and shrinkage can be included in staged constructionanalyses. 5 in to the right.


The soil has been modeled using Winkler spring approach, which models the lateral restraining effect of the soil as a set of discrete one-dimensional spring distributed along the length of the pile. When the resultant acts away from the shear centre axis, then the beam will not only bend but also twist. I defined the link with stiffness in 1, 2, 3 local directions (X, Y, Z) but no moment/rotational stiffness. Taken as a differential quantity, it is dT/d(theta). The method is then known as the direct stiffness method. A series of nine-story, five-bay, elastic frames were analyzed to verify the concept of apparent lateral stiffness of a story.


Performing Organization Name and Address Joint Transportation Research Program 550 Stadium Mall Drive - No physical stiffness corresponding to rotation about t~~. This spring stiffness calculator will calculate all of the values required to determine whether the spring will be stiff enough to meet its requirements. Report Date May 2008 6. 3R-3 f i1, f i2 = dimensionless stiffness and damping functions for the i-th direction, piles f m = frequency of motion, Hz f n = system natural frequency (cycles per second) Mathematical Problems in Engineering is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes results of rigorous engineering research carried out using mathematical tools. Staging part of elevated water tanks follows the provisions given by Criteria for design of RCC staging for overhead from pushover analysis, a static non-linear analysis. In Section 3 a Spring Type Simple Spring Stiffness per Unit Area Simple Spring Resists O Link Property Loa 2 Axis Angle from Default Orientation Spring Location (Area Object Face) Area Object Face Area Object Edge Number Spring Tension Direction Parallel to Area Object Local Axis Normal to Specified Area Object Face User Specified Direction Vector rotational spring, each characterized by a linear elastic-stiffness and a plastic capacity.


Steel frame design according to the API RP 2A-WSD 21st edition code has been updated for supplements 1, 2 and 3. Boundary Conditions define how the model is externally constrained. 1-1 Geotechnical Parameters Parameter Value Net bearing pressure (to control settlement due to sustained loads) ≤ 4,000 psf for B ≤ 20 feet ≤ 2,000 psf for B ≥ 40 feet (may interpolate for intermediate dimensions) Bearing capacity (for plastic equilibrium strength checks with Pushover Analysis Using ETABS and SAP2000 June 18-19, Manila, Philippines For Association of Structural Engineers Philippines By Naveed Anwar Asian Center for Engineering Computations and Software Asian Institute of Technology In Association with The quasi-static design procedure given in most building codes are ductility based and do not explicitly apply to buildings with supplemental damping. The analysis result has been compared with pile test, SSI program i. For elastic analysis, the stiffness of a joint can be approximated by a linear rotational spring with characteristic Sj,ini placed at the joint. Foundation Analysis and Desing Foundation Design -1 .


For analysis, design and pushover analysis of frame SAP2000 v15 [2] software is used. soil conditions, lateral forces, ratio of flexural stiffness of beam and column etc. 0 2016-11-16 Page 1 SAP2000 stiffness damping generally leads to faster convergence during analysis, but may overestimate defined meshes, a fully-coupled 6-by-6 spring stiffness, and the option to combine or envelope multiple dynamic analyses in the same run. This is where spring index and space between the coils (pitch) comes in. Computer Modeling of the Proposed Kealakaha Stream Bridge Jennifer B. The length and width of the block foundations shall be such that plan view eccentricities between the center of gravity of combined machine-foundation system and the center of resistance (center of stiffness) should be less than 5% of plan dimensions of the foundation mAdsDegc d _eC# si SgeOBi n i roi f VEs NR_AFI L_OUTNESI L 22 MAR 2018 0927 100% APPROVED BY FILE NAME TRIM DA COLOURS BIG AD/CD d d n i .


Gazetas [1] model is used for representing stiffness of soil and the foundation resting on it as a spring. The following relationships can be demonstrated (for proofs refer to a text on the strength of materials). nl l Spring issue 2014 l Plaxis Bulletin 3 » 20 years of Plaxis bv has shown countless new features and developments throughout the years. The magnitude of the spring torque is equal to the product of the physical signal input and the relative angular displacement between the two rotational conserving ports. . As a matter of fact, accurate solutions of the plate problem require finite element discretizations using complex plate or shell elements.


The SAP2000 result for the amplitude of this deflection for the steady-state option is -0. SAP2000 Basic Analysis Reference where u1, u2, u3, r1, r2 and r3 are the joint displacements and rotations, and the terms u1, u2, u3, r1, r2, and r3 are the specified spring stiffness coefficients. Stiffness transformation factor: The stiffness of an element is the internal force tending to restore the element to its unloaded static position. A simple line beam analysis will give an approximate magnitude for the reactions. Frame - Line Springs. Let’s have a look at different options in ETABS for releases.


Such bracing will not only be cost effective and efficient technique for new buildings SAP2000 is the finite element that is used in simulation of nonlinear super structure and soil structure interaction by linear springs. 0 ve v16. An Example Problem. The mode superposition approach with constant 4% modal damping was used in the analysis for Kindly share any material on how to design a tunnel on sap2000. Numerical simulation performed by Jankowski [34] showed that ‘The matrix methodology of structural analysis for skeletal structures may be aterribly elementary and helpful subject, thatmay be a stepping stone towards understanding additional advanced subjects like structural dynamics, finite componentmethodology, and stability of structures. damping, referred to as Rayleigh damping, is often used in the mathematical model for the simulation of the dynamic response of a structure; Rayleigh damping is proportional to the stiffness and mass of the structure.


A complete set of algebraic formulas and dimensionless charts is presented for readily computing the dynamic stiffness (K) of foundations. There is no simple option to just release a specific percentage of moments and shear at the supports. Overview. A frequency response function can be formed from either measured data or analytical functions. to regular lateral, load distributions, variations in the lateral stiffness of a given story for the several load cases are small enough to be neglected. The cantilever beam with IPE270 section is chosen for comparison of SAP2000 solutions and proposed model results.


interaction (SSI) nor the nonlinear behavior of The SAP name has been synonymous with state-of-the-art analytical methods since its introduction over 30 years ago. Two-cable system with crossties. We can equivalent the bar structure into above spring structure. , equivalent static stiffness for different direction vibration mode, the soil spring stiffness can be calculated using Gazetas 1991 [36] expressions shown in Equations (7a) to (7c). Can I specify different values of stiffness for compression and tension at the same support for example 1200 K/in in compression but 800 K/in in tension ? Yes. The optimum slip maximizes energy absorption for a given frame configuration and a given lateral force.


In SAP2000 how do you model the rotational spring? What data do you need to model it? Will the method to find horizontal stiffness of an isloator for an SDOF system ie. But I am not sure what values to put for the stiffness. Care must be taken not to Structural Engineering: How does Sap2000 calculate Moment - Curvature curve? in the spring is equivalent to the spring's stiffness by it's displacement Just one simple question. An optimal value was obtained from these results. Frequency response functions are complex functions, with real and imaginary components. 5.


Eigenvalue analyses must precede dynamic analyses such as Modal Time History analysis or Response spectrum analysis. Performing Organization Code 7. A. 0 time 1. 0 2. An important objective of this research is to determine whether accurate analyses of the lateral load-deflection behavior of composite piles can be performed using the same procedures typically used for prestressed concrete piles and other conventional pile types.


They oscillate in along- and across wind directions. Spring supports are link elements that are used to elastically connect joints to the ground and can be linear or nonlinear in nature. 014----4 100. The SAP2000 results for the time- history option are shown in Figure 6-3. This allows thesame model can be used for both SAP2000 and SASSI analyses. Illustration.


0 INTRODUCTION When a beam is transversely loaded in such a manner that the resultant force passes through the longitudinal shear centre axis, the beam only bends and no torsion will occur. In order to show the stiffness of the bar is = (+), we need to find the relationship between the external force and the displacement of node , as depicted in the equivalent figure above. 054535. The only way is to provide the reduced stiffness of the members. An Eigensolution uses the mass and stiffness matrices to calculate natural frequencies and natural modes of vibration for a structure due to free or unforced vibration. We would like to firstly thank Wout Broere for al his years of hard work and Some people suggests to calculate pile stiffness by AE/L formula.


Chapter 5: Foundation Analysis and Design 5-5 Table 5. The column base stiffness is in particular influenced by behaviour of the tension part of the base plate, see [2]. Key Words:Soil Structure Interaction, Spring Stiffness, Soil Flexibility, Base Shear, Displacement, Period. The spring is when the team irons out the fastest way to construct the bridge and practices as often as possible! Software Provider of Technology Product & Services. The eigenvalues are the roots of the following equation. EXAMPLE CALCULATION – Seismic Actions to BC3: 2013 Page 8 of 22 • Rz,i (MT,i = 1 ) is the rotation of the storey i about the vertical axis due to a unit moment, MT, applied at the centre of stiffness.


0 Berke ley, Cal i for nia, USA June 2008 Special Topics: Structure stiffness matrix including restrained coordinates, approximate matrix analysis of building frames, condensation of degrees of freedom and restructuring, inclined roller supports, offset connections, semi-rigid connections, shear deformations, non-prismatic members and solutions to large system of stiffness equations. The articulated support is considered to be released in rotation and locked in translation. The salient values of the maximum response of the system are summarized as below: Response quantity The only differences between solid models and others is that the stiffness matrix and mass matrix is set up for a solid mesh instead of a beam mesh or a spring-mass model. For example, a magnet may have more than one possible magnetic moment in a given magnetic field, depending on how the field changed in the past. As mentioned above in a comment I too used 2EI/L and put it as stiffness of the spring. For the analysis of more complex, continuous structures, knowledge of the finite element method (FEM) is necessary.


The analytical software used was SAP2000 (version 11. Lpile and SAP2000 program and it has shown that the result achieved is highly accurate. Pushover Analysis of 2-Story Moment Frame. For same soft soil used in direct method with shear velocity of V s = 150 m/s. Both springs have a stiffness of 400 lb/in. Th1S process of assembly is methodically done in the fimte element method, as will be seen In this chapter.


, each of the four rows) to determine the average group response to a lateral load as shown in Excel macro interacts SAP2000 program on second page. Augmenting the direct stiffness method and performing the analysis in Matlab In order to perform the analysis, please find the local stiffness matrix for a truss in your class notes. This can be useful for specific calculations with other codes such as Matlab. Genner Villarreal Castro SAP2000 Training SAP2000 Training Series ( SAP2000 video Hướng dẫn) SAP2000 Tutorial in Turkish equations as for the elastic half-space analog for the surface foundations and multiplying the spring stiffness and damping values with the corresponding values embedment coefficient (factor) for the embedded foundations. 4 as used in this calculation is classified as Level 1 software usage as Linear spring + added weight W Free length l W s static deflection F static deflection W s Notes: a) Block has weight W= Mg b) Block is regarded as a point mass c) Static deflection s found from nonlinear equation: Balance of static forces W F spring Reaction force from spring 3 WF K K spring s s13 of base-isolated structures such as SAP2000 models elastomeric bearings as a two-node discrete element with stiffness in each of the six principal directions represented by linear or nonlinear springs between the two nodes. From transportation facilities to public works, it is widely used SAP2000 models can be exported directly as House models to program SASSI.


Very few investigations have been . A beam element under pure bending has only four degrees of freedom. In this paper anchored sheet pile wall is analyzed by Finite Element method (FEM) and SAP2000 is used for the analysis. Then the above bar displacement can be written as Ü Therefore, it is possible to observe that the empirical adoption for stiffness of wind towers must be verified by experimental values, avoiding design failures in dynamic response of these structures. Example: Sleipner A Oil Platform • Concrete structure with 24 cells, sank i 1991 d i f d kk in 1991 during prep for deck installation • Extensive FEA was performed, butExtensive FEA was performed, but Seismic Design of Steel Special Concentrically Braced Frame Systems: A Guide for Practicing Engineers Concentrically Braced Frames (CBFs) are a class of structures resisting lateral loads through a vertical concentric truss system, the axes of the members aligning concentrically at the joints. Schotanus & J.


The ties are modeled as an elastic spring, and a number of combinations of stiffness values (K and K G) are considered, where K is the stiffness between two cables, and K G is the stiffness between the cable and the ground or bridge deck. ASCE 7-05 wind (open frame or building structures). This loss of stability usually occurs within the elastic range of the material. 0 2016-08-15 Page 2 * Incident Description 91114 An enhancement has been implemented adding a new "Expected Concrete Compressive Strength" to the concrete material property definition. They may also be represented in terms of magnitude and phase. To study the failure pattern of these materials in torsion.


Table 1: Friction spring define parameter -80 This study presented and discussed the seismic performance evaluation of a novel Spring Based Piston Bracing for the civil engineering structures. The SAP name has been synonymous with state-of-the-art analytical methods since its introduction over 30 years ago. The OpenSees foundation-soil system excited by harmonic forces with different frequencies, a group of equivalent models are developed by considering three criteria. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS are performed. 2,108 likes · 5 talking about this. The stiffness of your spring depends on the proportion of each spring dimension with all the others.


Supports & Restraints SAP2000 • General Spring Connection • Global and skewed springs • Coupled 6x6 user-defined spring stiffness option (for foundation modeling) Joint Restraints . the footing stiffness is increasing due to soil types parameters from soft, medium, and hard soils with higher stiffness values, that reflect directly on the overall stiffness of whole structure Figure 7 and Figure 8 present the capacity spectrum curves of Al-Fahs Bridge (study case); in the longitudinal and transversal direction respectively. CHAPTER 5 MODELING OF THE BRIDGE 5. dy has proposed on a tall building SAP2000 and ETABS Dictate Courses with Innovative Video Tutorials SAP2000 Concrete Building Design SAP2000 Curso SAP2000 Lectures in Arabic Sap2000 Modeling Analysis and Design of Slabs SAP2000 Structural Engineering by Dr. e. NON-LINEAR MODAL ANALYSIS METHODS FOR ENGINEERING STRUCTURES by Hugo Ramon Elizalde Siller Department of Mechanical Engineering Imperial College London / University of London A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy August, 2004 In the steel Sections tables i.


2009sec. Nơi chia sẻ thông tin các phần mềm SAP2000, Etabs, Safe, CSIBridge, GSA stiffness for spring 1 k g1 1050. Chapter 21 – Seismic Design of Concrete Bridges 21-5 Bent stiffness shall be based on effective material properties and also include the effects of foundation flexibility if it is determined to be significant by the Geotechnical Engineer. Canan Özgen _____ Dean, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences tune mass damper and spring stiffness (in kN/m3). Select a Displacement Function-A displacement function u(x) is assumed Mini SAP 2000 Tutorial for an Example Beam (Hands‐on Exercise in the Lab. SAP2000 Powerful Modeling Capabilities Interactive Modeling SAP2000 Work on Multiple View • Generate complex 3D models using plan, elevation and developed 3.


diaphragms. You may define these points of support as completely restrained or as partially restrained with a Spring. spring elements that provide lateral restraint for the piles. SAP2000, Version 9. Changes in stiffness could affect the fundamental period of the bridge and earthquake Notes on The Application of Spring Constant …. By comparing the frame analysis results obtained by the SAP2000 software with those obtained by the proposed method, it was concluded that the suggested method can be used as a simple and reasonable approach for the segmental lining of underground structures such as tunnels.


The displacement of the grounded end of the spring may be specified to be zero or non-zero (e. 1 Boundary Conditions The boundary condition is the application of a force and/or constraint. The twisting is resisted by the torsional stiffness of the section. Robertson Research Report UHM/CEE/03-03 May 2003 spring. The first criterion is equivalent static response, which establishes an equivalence of static displacement between the equivalent model and the foundation-soil system subject to a static force. Type values for Spring Stiffness in the three Translation and three Rotation local directions.


equation for this model may be The Stiffness (Displacement) Method 1. STATICS, DYNAMICS and EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING a fully-coupled 6-by-6 spring stiffness, and the option to combine or envelope multiple All SAP2000 data Stiffness is the rigidity of an object — the extent to which it resists deformation in response to an applied force. Ahmed Alsawy Recommended for you SAP2000 follows in the same tradition featuring a very sophisticated, intuitive and versatile user interface powered by an unmatched analysis engine and design tools for engineers working on transportation, industrial, public works, sports, and other facilities. The stiffness matrix is N / m 3000 5000 4000 3000 K » ¼ º « ¬ ª (8) The eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be found using the method in Reference 2. Section one focuses on structures featuring cyclic symmetric where the stiffness and mass matrices of only one elementary sector allow to obtain the global matrices. The Winkler model can capture more accurately The finite element method (FEM), or finite element analysis (FEA), is a computational technique used to obtain approximate Stiffness matrix for one spring element.


72 kN GSA stiffness for spring 2 k g2 28. The spring stiffness should be large enough so that the characteristic time of the spring-dashpot damper element, given by τ = c d/k d, is approximately two to three orders of magnitude smaller than 1/ω n. Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA P-751, Design Examples Foundation Design - 2 Pile Stiffness: k = for column stiffness. SAP2000 can be used to represent semi-rigidity in structures through introduction of spring members. This will enable a suitable bearing to be chosen for the grillage model. Chang Ian N.


It is common to have Eq. Let the spring constant be k N/m while the spring is subjected to a force f. JITENDRA NAIK (212ME1277) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Master Of Technology degree in Mechanical Engineering with specialization in Machine Design and Analysis at the solution that can change the properties of the spring. 1 INTRODUCTION {XE "Soil-Structure Interactions" }The estimation of earthquake motions at the site of a structure is the most important phase of the design or retrofit of a structure. Answer: The formula can be rearranged to solve for the spring constant, k: In this question, a 9000 N force is pulling on a spring. 1 FREE VIBRATION Spring supports are link elements that are used to elastically connect joints to the ground and can be linear or nonlinear in nature.


The SAP name has been synonymous withstate-of-the-art analytical methods since its introduction over 30years ago. The block represents a torsional spring with variable spring stiffness. INTRODUCTION Tall reinforced concrete (RC) chimneys are sensitive to wind vibrations under the influence of dynamic wind loads. The following figure shows the physical representation of this mechanical model. Now a days TMD theory has been adopted to reduce vibrations of tall buildings and other civil engineering structures. FHWA/IN/JTRP-2007/23 9.


0 4. For analysis, computer software SAP2000 v 8. NBCC 2005 wind and seismic. Please note that the SAP2000 v19. Both modal and Rayleigh damping are used to avoid the need to form a damping matrix damping, referred to as Rayleigh damping, is often used in the mathematical model for the simulation of the dynamic response of a structure; Rayleigh damping is proportional to the stiffness and mass of the structure. It is very soft laterally but very stiff vertically.


It is moving up and down. This is to certify that the thesis entitled, “DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF BEAM AND FRAME STRUCTURE SUBJECTED TO MOVING LOAD” submitted by Mr. It was seen that accuracy increased as the number of stiffness segments increased and that four segments seemed to balance accuracy and time-commitment by the engineer adequately. c) Frame Element A typical force vs. We will also show you an alternate method to compute stiffness. • The stiffness calculated by the proposed equation can be used as an input to the any structural software (in this case SAP2000) using a spring coefficient to simplify the modelling of the base plate connections.


Auto lateral wind load has been added according to the API 4F 2013 code. Robertson Research Report UHM/CEE/03-03 May 2003 The purpose of this note is to explain how to extract stiffness and mass matrices from Ansys. ABAQUS. 4 x 103 psi Abstract. It assumed that the material is elastic and isotropic (i. The analysis and design methods used in the development of the SAP2000 analysis model are consistent with the ASCE Standard 4 and the ASCE/SEI 43-05.


. SAP2000, CSI 2007) with link elements at connections between substructure (abutments, piers) and superstructure (Figure 4). Which model is better for soil-structure interaction in SAP 2000 joint-springs or Link element? Dear all, I am modelling a tunnel structure (rectangular) using Soil-Structure Interaction in SAP2000. 18 June 2018 • At water crossings – Pier scour depth, if known, and any potential for migration the buckling resistance of the beam. How can you find it with SAP2000? The stiffness obtained by the proposed analytical formula with corresponding FE results is satisfactory. The stiffness of this spring was calculated in a similar Partially fixed is not the right word to say, in fact SAP2000 just distributes load based of relative stiffness of members.


SAP2000 also lets you specify spring constants in translation or rotation, allowing the definition of elastic supports. SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION At a Finite Distance from a Structure, the Absolute Displacements Must Approach the Free-Field Displacements 16. When software does not support an explicit isolator element, a spring element or a short column may be used to simulate the isolator. (Received 24 Muy 1985) The SAP name has been synonymous with state-of-the-art analytical methods since its introduction over 30 years ago. SAP2000 distributes the springs associated with the frame object to all of the nodes associated with the internal-to-SAP (analysis model) representation of the line object. The inherent eccentricity due to change is mass centroid and stiffness centroid is automatically include in the analysis regardless the choice of diaphragm.


This means that the computer program with the element should allow a shell node to have either five or six degrees of freedom: the five natural nodal degrees of freedom are used when the shell model contains only stiffness corresponding to these five defined meshes, a fully-coupled 6x6 spring stiffness, and the option to combine or envelope multiple dynamic analyses in the same run. From the Main Menu select File > Import > SAP2000(V8) File. Procedure for Analysis. We have the following relationship k · d The spring’s stiffness has been derived considering the frame’s weight as the force and its draft as displacement; so we have derived a total stiffness, that has been divided by the spring’s number, in order to obtain the stiffness of the single spring. The spring stiffness is given in Table 2. used to generate vertical and horizontal spring stiffness.


Published models of the column base loaded by bending moment It is widely used for vibration control in mechanical engineering systems. Seminar on The Advancement & Trend in Soil Structural Engineering in The Third Millennium, March 7, 2001 Jakarta Page 1 of 10 NOTES ON THE APLICATION OF SPRING CONSTANT AND SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM GOUW Tjie-Liong Senior Geotechnical Consultant SAP2000 v18. •All other parameters being equal (soil conditions, pile type, COMPUTER METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Spring 2016-2017 "SAP2000 Program Manual", Computers & Structures, Inc. MOUrwLATOSt and MICHAEL G. In such case, and can be obtained by direct summation of the members' matrices and . Average the load for a given deflection from all piles in the group (i.


a) Superstructure - Spine element www. DESIGN OF BASE ISOLATION SYSTEM FOR BUILDINGS by Tai-Chieh Wu Submitted to the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering On May 11, 2001 SAP2000 v10 - Page 13 / 13SAP2000 v10 ADVANCED ADD-ON MODULES:SAP2000 Staged Construction ModuleThe Staged Construction Module adds capability to consider staged construction sequencing for anymodel. The governing differential Fig. Yes, you are correct. The SAP2000 PLUS program adds unlimited capacity, bridge-analysis capabilities, a complete range of finite elements and time-history analysis options. 02 kN The initial pre-compression force in the spring P in 95 kN l p Length of the spring when the NSD is undeformed.


Steel frame design has been added according to the Norsok N-004 2013 code. This method uses soil spring models for soil structure interaction(SSI) and sheet pile is modeled as beam element and the embedded part of the pile as a beam on Winkler foundation. ANALYSES OF THE LATERAL LOAD TESTS AT THE ROUTE 351 BRIDGE 8. The spring stiffness must be selected approximately three orders-of-magnitude greater than the stiffness of the structure at the connecting nodes. Stiffness in U1, U2 and U3 (i. Attached is a pic of a model i found somewhere.


03 rad /sec (11) f1 4. By doing this method the problem is that as you increase the length of the pile, the stiffness will reduce which is not accurate. Thus, a single value can be used to represent stiffness. You may use the multilinear springs which allows one to specify different spring stiffness values corresponding to the support displacements. Efficient nonlinear dynamic analysis methods like the Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA), especially the one which is based on Modal Pushover Analysis (MPA), which has proved especially popular among researchers, are required for analyzing the structure such as fixed base, spring model and soil continuum. Soil springs stiffness properties are not degradation with pushover load curve; as linear simulation of shallow foundation system of bridge footing.


The price of the land is The direct stiffness method. Please try again later. It has been found that this force is below 50% of the story shear but different forces are often selected by the structural designer depending on his/her constraints and objectives. From the Main Menu select File > Import > midas Civil MCT File. It’s important to know that Designing for Longitudinal Force Tuesday September 19, 2006 Louisville, KY •The effective longitudinal force shall be distributed to the various components of the supporting structure, taking into account their relative stiffness. Section 2 the model for determination of the load capacity is discussed.


This modeling procedure is typically adequate when rigid stiffness is not too large relative to the stiffness of connecting elements. 0 Enhancements. The time variation of displacement and spring force of the system is plotted in Figures 7. this person has braced the tunnel by using link supports which I have no idea about since i have ever used them. Recessed Double support Joint Free node Figure 21: Different types of media. The mass (m s) is the structural mass and shall comprise of mass of tank container and one-third mass of staging as staging will acts like a lateral spring.


The maximum amplitude being reported is -0. The spring is of length L and is subjected to a nodal tensile force, T directed along the x-axis. Base isolation on SAP2000, how do I determine the effective damping of a NLLink? how do I determine the effective damping to be included in the isolator's properties? How can I determine COMBINED MODELLING OF STRUCTURAL AND FOUNDATION SYSTEMS Liam WOTHERSPOON1, Michael PENDER2, Jason INGHAM3 SUMMARY The work reported in this paper illustrates our conviction that the route to more effective design of structure/foundation systems is through better cooperation between structural and geotechnical specialists. 2 and 7. 1 in yenilikleri şu şekilde; Significant enhancements include: Steel frame design has been added according to the Norsok N-004 2013 code. 02.


Undamped systems and systems having viscous damp-ing and structural damping are included. In this paper, the analysis of a numerical study of pile–soil interaction subjected to axial and lateral loads is presented. draw FBDs of spans and joints determine distribution factors and fixed-end moments (click) identify joints (free ends are not joints) determine stiffness factor K for each span (click) K = 4EI/L for far-end fixed Dynamic Analysis - Time History. Alternatively the grillage analysis can be carried out with rigid vertical supports and modified later. LIVE LOAD RESPONSE OF THE BLACK SLOUGH RIVER OPEN WEB STEEL JOIST BRIDGE By Piero Caputo A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of the system based on the elastic stiffness is 1 sec and the damping ratio is 0. 2 Torsional effect In addition to the lateral movement of the section the forces within the flanges cause the section to twist about its longitudinal axis as shown in Figure 3.


Word 2000 was used in the text preparation of this document; no calculations functions contained in Word were used in this document. Keywords: Chimney, Tuned Mass Damper, Vibration control. Analysis of Laterally Loaded Piles in Multilayered Soil Deposits 5. nl l Spring issue 2014 l Plaxis Bulletin 9 Comparison of Structural Elements Response in PLAXIS 3D and SAP2000 The diagonal elements of the frame were modelled in order to make them equivalent to a building infill panel, adopting a simplified version of a formulation proposed in the literature • General Spring Connection • Global and skewed springs • Coupled 6x6 user-defined spring stiffness option (for foundation modeling) Supports & Restraints S A P 2 0 0 0 Joint Constraints • Generalized joint constraint options including rigid bodies, diaphragms, rods and welds Supports & Restraints Weld Rod Diaphragm S A P 2 SAP2000 has a wide selection of templates for quickly starting a new model. Joint-spring stiffness is determined from tributary area and the line- or area-spring stiffness which is assigned to the object. the next section.


SAP2000 offers automated API 4F wind load generation and comprehensive design code unity checks. Both modal and Rayleigh damping are used to avoid the need to form a damping matrix Imagine if you have say a 10 x 10m raft foundation. 3. There would be rotation. • We transform the two nodal rotations to the three Cartesian axes in order to Spring Constant Formula Questions: 1) Find the spring constant of a spring if it requires a 9000 N force to pull it 30. To determine the mechanical properties, e.


direct stiffness method may be sufficient. det K 2 M 0 »¼ º «¬ ª Z (9) The eigenvalues are Z1 > 901. From the Main Menu select File > Import > SAP2000(V6, V7) File. A physical signal input port provides the value of the variable spring stiffness. In general, stiffness is not the same as elastic modulus. September 3: Holiday - Labor Day : September 5: Chapter 3 - Development of the stiffness matrix for a bar element and transformation of global stiffness matrix for a bar arbitrarily oriented this example, the effect of the spring can be made negligible by making its stiffness, k d, sufficiently stiff.


IBC2006 seismic. The rotational stiffness is the change in torque required to achieve a change in angle. I. ku180 = 18 * | Shear Springs as Links in SAP2000 Rotational Stiffness. Spring Stiffness. Bracing Requirements of AISC 360 LOUIS F.


To ensure the equivalent stiffness of the assembly is equal to the stiffness of the actual frame member, the stiffness of the elastic element must be “(n+1)/n” times greater than the stiffness of the actual frame member. For a given foundation having circular base the values are calculated which can be further converted for rectangular footing Non-Linear Time History Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam by Using SAP2000 edges by providing spring support with stiffness 500KN/m. Load collectors may be created using the right click context menu in the Model Browser (Create > Load Collector). Construct the global stiffness matrix using what we know Hysteresis is the dependence of the state of a system on its history. 50 (SAP2000) (Computers and Structures, Inc. Topic Nineteen 19-17 Transparency 19-29 • If only shell elements connect to node k, and the node is not subjected to boundary prescribed rotations, we only assign five local degrees of freedom to that node.


) Question: How do we model this beam using SAP2000? This is a mini‐tutorial prepared for the structural analysis of a sample beam using SAP2000. 2 was used. Braced frames are a very common form of construction, being economic to construct and simple to analyse. 5501 Hz Why do you thik the above result is different from yours? Theoretical period calculated with formula above is T=0. 0 cm from equilibrium. 1-24 Introduction to Nonlinear Analysis Transparency 1-28 Meaning of time variable • Time is a pseudo-variable,only denoting the load level in Nonlinear static analysis with time­ independent material properties Run 1 at = 2.


SAP2000 - Three Dimensional Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analysis and Design of Structures . To eliminate the spring effect, its stiffness should be the artificial spring stiffness. Integrated Software for Structural Analysis & Design . As the plots above show, the effect of changing angle on torque for a given L2 distance is approximately linear, therefore we assume a linear stiffness. All models must be attached to some external point or points of support. carried out on soil-structure interaction of tall buildings under .


How about the interaction between structural model and soil model to converge on the most appropriate spring stiffness? Spring supports are link elements that are used to elastically connect joints to the ground and can be linear or nonlinear in nature. ABSTRACT: It is important to consider the interaction between the foundation and the Thank you, I want to model using Links in SAP2000. completed. 1 INTRODUCTION. An elastic solid can be viewed as a bundle of ideal springs. Beam spring Chapter 7 Substructure Design Page 7-2 WSDOT Bridge Design Manual M 23-50.


ABSTRACT: Soil-foundation-structure interaction (SFSI) incorporates nonlinear geometrical effects and nonlinear soil deformation effects into earthquake analysis of structure-foundation systems. Click the Assign menu > Joint > Springs command to display the Joint Springs form. SAP 2000 - Technology for Better Word - 123doc. The double pendulums are symmetry’s restraints. a. The effective and nonlinear stiffness for U1 direction should be based on EA/L of the hangers.


This feature is not available right now. View and manipulate analytical and physical models with great precision. sap2000 spring stiffness

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